2020

Quantifying Remoteness for Risk and Resilience Assessment Using Nighttime Satellite Imagery
P Zangeneh, H Hamledari, B McCabe
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 34 (5), 04020026

View Abstract
Remoteness has a crucial role in risk assessments of megaprojects, resilience assessments of communities and infrastructure, and a wide range of public policymaking. The existing measures of remoteness require an extensive amount of population census and of road and infrastructure network data, and often are limited to narrow scopes. This paper presents a methodology to quantify remoteness using nighttime satellite imagery. The light clusters of nighttime satellite imagery are direct yet unintended consequences of human settled populations and urbanization; therefore, the absence of illuminated clusters is considered as evidence of remoteness. The proposed nighttime remoteness index (NIRI) conceptualizes the remoteness based on the distribution of nighttime lights within radii of up to 1,000 km. A predictive model was created using machine learning techniques such as multivariate adaptive regression splines and support vector machines regressions to establish a reliable and accurate link between nighttime lights and the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA). The model was used to establish NIRI for the United States and Canada, and in different years. The index was compared with the Canadian remoteness indexes published by Statistics Canada.
View BibText
@article{zangeneh2020quantifying,
title={Quantifying Remoteness for Risk and Resilience Assessment Using Nighttime Satellite Imagery},
author={Zangeneh, Pouya and Hamledari, Hesam and McCabe, Brenda},
journal={Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering},
volume={34},
number={5},
pages={04020026},
year={2020},
publisher={American Society of Civil Engineers}
}

EvacuSafe: Building Evacuation Strategy Selection Using Route Risk Index
F Mirahadi, B McCabe
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 34 (2), 04019051

View Abstract
At the time of an emergency, building evacuation is a complex safety procedure. Emergencies by definition occur quickly and unexpectedly. Effective and timely decision making during this period requires a comprehensive knowledge about the current state of the building and an ability to compare the probable outcomes of each evacuation strategy. This highlights the need for continuous monitoring of the building and high computation power for simulation of evacuation strategies. In this paper, a decision-support system is proposed that offers evacuation strategies for fire scenarios as a function of building layout, location and mobility of the hazardous fire products, and route selection of the building population. In the pre-event stage, the system simulates many fire scenarios to evaluate the time and risk associated with various evacuation strategies. When an emergency is identified in real time, the system matches the event with the nearest simulated scenario and selects the corresponding safest evacuation strategy. The optimal strategy is then communicated with the path planning guidance system to direct the movements of the crowd toward the safest exit route. The guidance system simulated here is based on a technology called the Active Dynamic Signage System (ADSS). These signs can change their directional message or dissuade occupants from taking an untenable route. A residential building with 66 floors is used as a case study for implementation of the proposed evacuation selection system. The framework is expected to help building emergency systems for decision making, pathfinding, and crowd handling during evacuations.
View BibText
@article{mirahadi2020evacusafe,
title={EvacuSafe: Building Evacuation Strategy Selection Using Route Risk Index},
author={Mirahadi, Farid and McCabe, Brenda},
journal={Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering},
volume={34},
number={2},
pages={04019051},
year={2020},
publisher={American Society of Civil Engineers}
}

2019

Impact of psychological capital on construction worker safety behavior: communication competence as a mediator
C He, G Jia, B McCabe, Y Chen, J Sun
Journal of safety research 71, 231-241

View Abstract
Construction workers face a work environment of high risk and mental stress. Psychological capital (PsyCap) could influence employee’s mental health and work performance. It would be helpful to determine whether PsyCap affects worker safety behavior. However, few studies empirically examined the impacts of the sub-dimensions of PsyCap on the safety behavior in construction settings, reducing the potential practicability of PsyCap to improve workplace safety performance. Thus, this study tested the relationship between sub-dimensions of PsyCap (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, optimism) and safety behaviors (safety compliance, safety participation), while the mediating role of communication competence was also explored. Method: Data were collected from 655 construction workers in China using a psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ). The theoretical model were tested with confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques. Results: Results show that: (a) the self-efficacy dimension of PsyCap positively affected safety compliance and safety participation, while the resilience dimension positively impacted safety participation; (b) the hope dimension was not directly related to safety behaviors, while the optimism dimension negatively associated with safety participation; and (c) communication competence mediated the relationships between the hope and optimism dimensions of PsyCap and safety participation. Conclusions: A multidimensional perspective on PsyCap should be taken while examining its effects on safety behavior and the individual communication competence helps to enhance construction safety. Findings of this study shed lights on safety behavior promotion practices based on the multidimensional model. Initiating flexible psychological capital training and intervention, and strengthening communication skills of construction employees are suggested to improve safety performance in the construction industry.
View BibText
@article{he2019impact,
title={Impact of psychological capital on construction worker safety behavior: communication competence as a mediator},
author={He, Changquan and Jia, Guangshe and McCabe, Brenda and Chen, Yuting and Sun, Jide},
journal={Journal of safety research},
volume={71},
pages={231–241},
year={2019},
publisher={Elsevier}
}

Framework for Automated Model-Based e-Permitting System for Municipal Jurisdictions
K Shahi, BY McCabe, A Shahi
Journal of Management in Engineering 35 (6), 04019025

View Abstract
Recent technological advances in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry, including the implementation of building information modeling (BIM) and automated data-capturing tools, have enabled the AEC industry to commence its digital journey in the era of big data. Over the last decade, e-permitting practices have been introduced in many municipal jurisdictions around the world, aimed at replacing the traditional and inefficient paper-based practices. In this paper, these recent international developments are investigated, and three distinct levels of e-permitting are defined based on their varying levels of automation and integration. A framework is then developed that considers the impact of each level of e-permitting on the entire life cycle of the project, from submission of permitting document through construction, operation, and maintenance of the built facility. The developed framework can be used as a road map for any municipality for advancing from traditional paper-based permitting practices (Level 0) to a fully integrated city planning tool (Level 3), thus enabling several smart urban management applications, including city-level planning reviews, integrated logistics planning, and smart urban asset management. The framework as a whole was validated by a group of experts on construction permitting practices. Specific elements of its lower levels have been implemented by municipalities around the world, which have reported significant productivity improvements. Finally, this paper investigates several barriers to implementing the higher levels of e-permitting, along with corresponding strategies for municipalities to mitigate and overcome these challenges.
View BibText
@article{shahi2019framework,
title={Framework for Automated Model-Based e-Permitting System for Municipal Jurisdictions},
author={Shahi, Kamellia and McCabe, Brenda Y and Shahi, Arash},
journal={Journal of Management in Engineering},
volume={35},
number={6},
pages={04019025},
year={2019},
publisher={American Society of Civil Engineers}
}

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN INTERPERSONAL CONFLICTS AT WORK AND CONSTRUCTION SAFETY PERFORMANCE: TWO ONTARIO CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES
Y Chen, B McCabe, D Hyatt

View Abstract
Interpersonal conflicts at work (ICW) has been widely regarded as a job stressor; relatively few research studies have been conducted to measure ICW in the construction industry, not to mention the comparison studies of the conflict level on construction sites over time. ICW mainly has two forms on a construction site: conflicts with supervisors (ICWS) and conflicts with coworkers (ICWC). This study compared the occurrences of ICWS and ICWC on construction sites and correlated ICW with safety incidents, based on two survey datasets collected from 2004 to 2006 (911 surveys) and 2013 to 2016 (1281 surveys) on Ontario construction sites. Less ICW were found, compared with ten years ago. Positive correlations between ICW and safety incidents were confirmed for both datasets. Less work pressure reported on Ontario construction sites may explain the decrease of conflict level. Future study may focus on building conflict management scales and test their influence on ICW on construction sites.
View BibText
@article{chen2019correlations,
title={CORRELATIONS BETWEEN INTERPERSONAL CONFLICTS AT WORK AND CONSTRUCTION SAFETY PERFORMANCE: TWO ONTARIO CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES},
author={Chen, Yuting and McCabe, Brenda and Hyatt, Douglas},
year={2019}
}

POLICY AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CLADDING SYSTEMS WITH LARGE WINDOW AREAS IN TALL RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
P Marquis, A Shahi, B McCabe, P De Berardis, M de Lint

View Abstract
As governing bodies attempt to reach ambitious GHG goals, urban development is being increasingly regulated to improve energy efficiency and ensure long-term sustainability of the built infrastructure. With the growing popularity of tall buildings in dense urban centres and the demands for netzero energy buildings, the Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR) of these buildings is seen as a low-hanging fruit to help reduce energy loads, leading to stricter prescriptive WWR regulations. In this paper, a critical review of the WWR regulations for tall residential buildings in the city of Toronto, with one of the highest urban development rates in North America, is presented, which included the examination of 283 tall towers. Instead of relying solely on WWR, this research introduces the effective WWR (EWWR) as an additional occupantfocused measure of the window area of tall buildings, which considers the occupant’s living experience in tall towers. Finally, alternative passive solutions are presented, which can provide a balance between energy performance and livability in tall towers without reducing the WWR.
View BibText
@article{marquis2019policy,
title={POLICY AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CLADDING SYSTEMS WITH LARGE WINDOW AREAS IN TALL RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS},
author={Marquis, Patrick and Shahi, Arash and McCabe, Brenda and De Berardis, Paul and de Lint, Michael},
journal={POLICY},
year={2019}
}

The Adoption of Building Information Modelling in Canada
LH Zhang, Y Cao, BY McCabe, A Shahi

View Abstract
The First Annual BIM Survey was published in 2018 to understand the local adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industries in the Greater Toronto Area. Technical analyses for the survey were also presented in the 2018 CSCE Conference in New Brunswick. Subsequently, the Second Annual BIM Survey was conducted in collaboration with the Residential Construction Council of Ontario, Canada BIM Council, BuildingSMART Canada, and local BIM chapters to engage AEC professionals in Canada. In this paper, sample results of the second survey are presented and benchmarked against those in the first survey. Cross-examinations of provinces and perspectives of BIM users and non-users are also discussed. This study serves as one of the milestones for BIM transition in Canada and aims to present a holistic view of the role that BIM plays in the future of the AEC industry.
View BibText

BENCHMARKING CONSTRUCTION SAFETY PERFORMANCE AT A GLOBAL LEVEL: A CASE STUDY OF US, CANADA, AND NEW ZEALAND
Y Chen, A Shahi, B McCabe, A Hanna, M Safa, M Safa, D Hyatt

View Abstract
Construction safety plateau has become a global issue. To sustain the continuous improvement of the global construction safety performance, research studies on construction safety performance at a global scale, i.e. comparing safety performance across countries, are needed. To fill in this gap, this paper starts with a preliminary study by comparing the safety performance of the Canada, US, and New Zealand construction sites and by investigating the impact of three demographic factors on construction safety performanceof workers, including age, work experience, and union membership.Safety surveys were collected from 2015 to 2017.In total, 837 surveys were collected from Canadian construction sites, 420 surveys were from US construction sites, and 40 were from New Zealand.The major findings are as follows. First, the top five physical injures that were reported most frequently are the same across the 3 countries, including cut, puncture, or open wound, headache or dizziness, strain or sprain, persistent fatigue, and skin rash or burn.Second, the top five unsafe events that were reported most frequently are the same across the 3 countries, including overexerted, slipped, tripped, or fell on the same level, pinch, exposed to chemicals, and struck against something fixed.Third, the most frequently reported unsafe event for all the 3 countries is overexerted. Finally, union membership has an extensive impact on the occurrence of safety incidents for both Canada and US sample.In future, more data are needed from New Zealand construction sites to enable further exploration.
View BibText
@article{chen2019benchmarking,
title={BENCHMARKING CONSTRUCTION SAFETY PERFORMANCE AT A GLOBAL LEVEL: A CASE STUDY OF US, CANADA, AND NEW ZEALAND},
author={Chen, Yuting and Shahi, Arash and McCabe, Brenda and Hanna, Awad and Safa, Mahdi and Safa, Majeed and Hyatt, Douglas},
year={2019}
}

Improved Tag-based Indoor Localization of UAVs Using Extended Kalman Filter
N Kayhani, A Heins, W Zhao, M Nahangi, B McCabe, AP Schoellig
Proceedings of the ISARC. International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, Banff, AB, Canada

View Abstract
Indoor localization and navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is a critical function for autonomous flight and automated visual inspection of construction elements in continuously changing construction environments. The key challenge for indoor localization and navigation is that the global positioning system (GPS) signal is not sufficiently reliable for state estimation. Having used the AprilTag markers for indoor localization, we showed a proof-of-concept that a camera-equipped UAV can be localized in a GPS-denied environment; however, the accuracy of the localization was inadequate in some situations. This study presents the implementation and performance assessment of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for improving the estimation process of a previously developed indoor localization framework using AprilTag markers. An experimental set up is used to assess the performance of the updated estimation process in comparison to the previous state estimation method and the ground truth data. Results show that the state estimation and indoor localization are improved substantially using the EKF. To have a more robust estimation, we extract and fuse data from multiple tags. The framework can now be tested in real-world environments given that our continuous localization is sufficiently robust and reliable.
View BibText
@inproceedings{kayhani2019improved,
title={Improved Tag-based Indoor Localization of UAVs Using Extended Kalman Filter},
author={Kayhani, Navid and Heins, Adam and Zhao, Wenda and Nahangi, Mohammad and McCabe, Brenda and Schoelligb, Angela P},
booktitle={Proceedings of the ISARC. International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, Banff, AB, Canada},
pages={21–24},
year={2019}
}
}

IFC-centric performance-based evaluation of building evacuations using fire dynamics simulation and agent-based modeling
F Mirahadi, B McCabe, A Shahi
Automation in Construction 101, 1-16

View Abstract
Despite recent technological advancements in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industries, the number of fire-caused fatalities in residential and commercial buildings in the United States over the last decade has consistently been an order of magnitude higher than fatalities caused by all other types of natural disasters combined. In this research, EvacuSafe is developed as a tool for designers to allow for layout optimization of buildings and facilities in terms of their evacuation safety performance. Contributions of this research include the development and validation of two spatiotemporal risk indices to quantify the safety of the egress routes and individual building compartments. Other unique advantages of EvacuSafe include the seamless integration of fire dynamics simulation, agent-based crowd simulation and building information models (BIM) using IFC data structures, allowing EvacuSafe to be readily used by designers to analyze a building layout design under various fire scenarios and for layout design optimization based on multiple safety criteria. The development of the framework, the risk indices, and the IFC-based integration is illustrated and validated through a case study on a two-story office building with 59 compartments. The results of the implementation show that the EvacuSafe is a valuable tool for evacuation design and planning that provides a more comprehensive evaluation of the evacuation performance in comparison to the existing indices and safety measures in the industry.
View BibText
@article{mirahadi2019ifc,
title={IFC-centric performance-based evaluation of building evacuations using fire dynamics simulation and agent-based modeling},
author={Mirahadi, Farid and McCabe, Brenda and Shahi, Arash},
journal={Automation in Construction},
volume={101},
pages={1–16},
year={2019},
publisher={Elsevier}
}
}

Safety-based efficiency evaluation of construction sites using data envelopment analysis (DEA)
M Nahangi, Y Chen, B McCabe
Safety science 113, 382-388

View Abstract
Identifying efficient construction sites in terms of safety is a challenge that must be addressed while assessing and evaluating performance criteria. This paper presents a method for a comparative and relative analysis of construction sites in terms of their safety performance. The proposed method employs Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method for identifying efficiency of construction sites, also known as decision-making units (DMU’s). Safety climate factors and number of incidents are respectively used as inputs and output of the DEA system. Four various scenarios are identified and analyzed, and results are compared to evaluate efficient construction sites. Results show that the number of incidents incurred at construction sites, which is the output of the DEA framework, is the dominant factor correlating with the efficiency of construction sites. Moreover, specific safety climate factors are investigated to examine their impact on the efficiency calculated. Some key observations that all comply with practical expectations are also reported.
View BibText
@article{nahangi2019safety,
title={Safety-based efficiency evaluation of construction sites using data envelopment analysis (DEA)},
author={Nahangi, Mohammad and Chen, Yuting and McCabe, Brenda},
journal={Safety science},
volume={113},
pages={382–388},
year={2019},
publisher={Elsevier}
}
}

Quantifying Remoteness for Construction Projects Using Nighttime Satellite Imagery and Machine Learning
P Zangeneh, H Hamledari, BY McCabe
ISARC. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction

View Abstract
Remoteness, although a subjective concept, has indispensable consequences. It can support decisionmakers in quantifying risks and feasibilities of developing newly discovered mineral deposits, resilience planning and evaluation of accessibility challenges of remote communities, or support agency budget allocations for much-needed services. Developing a remoteness index typically involves merging spatial and temporal data from a variety of incompatible sources such as topographical, census, and travel cost and duration. This paper presents a novel method for generating a measure of remoteness for any geographical location based on the nighttime satellite imagery. This continuous measure, herein referred to as Nighttime Remoteness Index (NIRI), is generated using machine learning-based models that link the intensity and statistical features of nighttime lights to remoteness; the predictive model is trained and validated using the nighttime satellite imagery and the Accessibility Remoteness Index for Australia (ARIA). This method does not require local data; hence, it is not limited by political jurisdictions or geographic boundaries. The NIRI is developed by using multivariate adaptive regression splines, and support vector machines regressions, after examining several other machine learning techniques. The NIRI maps of Australia and North America are developed based on the validated models.
View BibText
@inproceedings{zangeneh2019quantifying,
title={Quantifying Remoteness for Construction Projects Using Nighttime Satellite Imagery and Machine Learning},
author={Zangeneh, P and Hamledari, H and McCabe, BY},
booktitle={ISARC. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction},
volume={36},
pages={1121–1128},
year={2019},
organization={IAARC Publications}
}

A Real-time Path-Planning Model for Building Evacuations
F Mirahadi, B McCabe
ISARC. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction

View Abstract
Simultaneous evacuation is the most widely used evacuation strategy in buildings. However, there are other evacuation strategies that might lead to safer outcomes if selected appropriately. Different forms of evacuation result from applying time delays to phased evacuation or altering path planning. The best strategy for evacuation depends on the characteristics of the building and the circumstances of the particular emergency. A real-time evacuation pathplanning model that identifies the fire hazard and proposes the best strategy of evacuation during the emergency can reduce risk and improve safety. In this paper, a model is proposed to find the safest strategy of evacuation based on the current state of the building and the emergency case. The model focuses on fire emergencies, as they are the dominant cause of fatalities in buildings compared to other types of natural and manmade disasters. The proposed model first defines a risk factor for each compartment based on the location of fire and then calculates the lowest risk path using Dijkstra algorithm. The pathplanning runs on the geometric network graph (GNG), which is generated from the IFC file of the building. Furthermore, unexpected events during evacuation, eg another source of fire, can force the system to search for another strategy. Herein, a model is designed to monitor the building in real-time and in case of any unexpected event, changes the evacuation plan accordingly. The case study shows that the proposed model for real-time evacuation management can significantly enhance the safety level of evacuation compared to the conventional simultaneous evacuation process.
View BibText
@inproceedings{mirahadi2019real,
title={A Real-time Path-Planning Model for Building Evacuations},
author={Mirahadi, Farid and McCabe, Brenda},
booktitle={ISARC. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction},
volume={36},
pages={998–1004},
year={2019},
organization={IAARC Publications}
}

2018

A Comparison of Safety Climate and Safety Performance between Ontario’s Residential and Heavy Civil Construction Sectors
Y Chen, B McCabe, D Hyatt

IFC-based development of as-built and as-is BIMs using construction and facility inspection data: Site-to-BIM data transfer automation
H Hamledari, E Rezazadeh Azar, B McCabe
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 32 (2), 04017075

View Abstract
Accurate and proactive inspection of constructed objects and identification of their defects and design conformity is vital to both facility management and construction projects. A project’s building information model (BIM) needs to be regularly updated to more accurately reflect the actual site conditions. However, conventional practices lack site-data integration with models and rely on manual, error-prone, and costly updates. This paper proposes and demonstrates a robust technique that uses the industry foundation classes (IFC) schema to automatically update an as-designed BIM based on site observations for inspected building elements. It receives as input an inspected object’s actual type and inspection details including the detected defects/changes, responsible actors, as-built/as-is type, captured images, and time and the date of the inspection. The algorithm automatically analyzes the IFC data model to retrieve the element’s semantics and identifies discrepancies between the as-built/as-is and as-designed object conditions. Based on the results of the discrepancy analysis, the IFC data model is populated with new semantics, resulting in the update of object types, properties, and three-dimensional (3D) shape representations. Inspection details and user entries are automatically documented in the BIM and assigned to objects to enable potential diagnostics and tractability. This automates site-to-BIM data transfer and supports reality-capture techniques.
View BibText
@article{hamledari2018ifc,
title={IFC-based development of as-built and as-is BIMs using construction and facility inspection data: Site-to-BIM data transfer automation},
author={Hamledari, Hesam and Rezazadeh Azar, Ehsan and McCabe, Brenda},
journal={Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering},
volume={32},
number={2},
pages={04017075},
year={2018},
publisher={American Society of Civil Engineers}
}

UAV Mission Planning Using Swarm Intelligence and 4D BIMs in Support of Vision-Based Construction Progress Monitoring and As-Built Modeling
H Hamledari, S Davari, SO Sajedi, P Zangeneh, B McCabe, M Fischer
Construction Research Congress 2018, 43-53

View Abstract
Inspection planning is a primary element of computer vision-and unoccupied aerial vehicle (UAV)-enabled construction monitoring. Prior to the on-site deployment of camera-mounted UAVs, the inspection objectives need to be identified, and optimal inspection plans must be developed; Such plans should ensure complete data acquisition and minimize the use of UAV’s limited flight time. The image capture configuration must be taken into account since it directly affects the downstream applications of the captured data such as progress detection and as-built modeling. This paper proposes a framework and a novel technique which utilizes four-dimensional (4D) building information models (BIM) and swarm intelligence to automatically generate the UAV inspection mission plans. It computationally supports both static and dynamic site layouts. The inspection objectives, their geometry, and their semantics are automatically extracted from BIM, and the corresponding elements are identified. An optimal inspection plan is developed using artificial intelligence, ensuring complete coverage of inspection targets while minimizing flight duration. The method has been tested in UAV-enabled data acquisition scenarios. It is based on the industry foundation classes (IFC), facilitating OpenBIM and reducing the costs associated with the lack of interoperability, a core challenge in information modeling. Due to the target extraction at element and sub-element levels, it supports computer vision-based construction progress monitoring and automated as-built and as-is BIM development.
View BibText
@inproceedings{hamledari2018uav,
title={UAV Mission Planning Using Swarm Intelligence and 4D BIMs in Support of Vision-Based Construction Progress Monitoring and As-Built Modeling},
author={Hamledari, Hesam and Davari, Shakiba and Sajedi, Seyed Omid and Zangeneh, Pouya and McCabe, Brenda and Fischer, Martin},
booktitle={Construction Research Congress 2018},
pages={43–53},
year={2018}
}

2017
UAV-enabled site-to-BIM automation: Aerial robotic-and computer vision-based development of as-built/as-is BIMs and quality control
H Hamledari, S Davari, ER Azar, B McCabe, F Flager, M Fischer
Construction Research Congress, 336-346

View Abstract
The automated integration of as-built and as-is conditions into building information models (BIM) remains a primary challenge for unoccupied aerial vehicles (UAV)-enabled facility and construction inspection. Due to the lack of site-to-BIM data pipelines supporting reality capture technologies such as camera-mounted UAVs, BIMs lose their effectiveness over time since they do not accurately reflect the as-built and as-is conditions; the UAV-captured visual data also remains underutilized. This paper proposes and demonstrates a novel industry foundation classes (IFC)-based solution for UAV-enabled as-built and as-is BIM development, quality control, and smart inspections. It first identifies the requirements of UAV-enabled site-to-BIM automation and its framework; then, it elaborates on the proposed solution which aims to: (1) enable automated conformance checking and quality control using data queried from BIMs and UAV-captured reality in the form of images; and more importantly; and (2) enable the integration of on-site captured reality, including the as-built and as-is conditions, into BIMs. The method leverages the non-proprietary IFC schema, empowering OpenBIM applications, and facilitating interoperability, a core challenge in the information modeling domain. In addition to its support for UAV-enabled applications, the technique can provide the same site-to-BIM functionalities for other types of reality capture and other robotic data collection efforts during construction, commissioning, and facility management.
View BibText
@inproceedings{hamledari2017uav,
title={UAV-enabled site-to-BIM automation: Aerial robotic-and computer vision-based development of as-built/as-is BIMs and quality control},
author={Hamledari, Hesam and Davari, Shakiba and Azar, Ehsan Rezazadeh and McCabe, Brenda and Flager, Forest and Fischer, Martin},
booktitle={Construction Research Congress},
pages={336–346},
year={2017}
}

USING DESCRIBED AUDIO TOURS TO ENHANCE CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING EDUCATION
BY McCabe
Proceedings of the Canadian Engineering Education Association (CEEA)

View Abstract
In 2015, legislation was enacted to require mandatory ‘Working at Heights’ training for all construction workers in Ontario. While the legislation has been successful in reducing lost time injuries due to falls, it inadvertently raised barriers for engineering instructors wishing to give their students a field-related learning experience. Although construction management students completed WHMIS, safety awareness, and fall awareness training, the liability related to the risk of injury was sufficient to motivate construction companies to deny student requests to visit their sites. To adapt to the situation, a novel program of described audio tours was developed, thereby allowing students to visit and learn about different construction sites without jeopardizing their safety or the risk tolerance of hosting contractors. The resulting program improved the learning experience in that students visited 20 to 25 sites during the term instead of one.
View BibText
@article{mccabe2017using,
title={USING DESCRIBED AUDIO TOURS TO ENHANCE CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING EDUCATION},
author={McCabe, Brenda Y},
journal={Proceedings of the Canadian Engineering Education Association (CEEA)},
year={2017}
}

Smart disaster management system for tall buildings
F Mirahadi, B McCabe, A Shahi
Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (CSCE) Annual Conference

View Abstract
The recent trend of movement and impetus towards realization of smart cities and smart multipurpose complexes calls for more efficient and safer disaster management systems. Elevators, as the main tool of vertical transportation in high-rise buildings, can potentially propel the advancements towards more competent disaster management systems. Dispatch algorithm of elevators is the dominant factor that determines how smart and efficient they could perform. With recent innovative research on checking the possibility of elevator use for emergency evacuation, the importance of having an expert control system, which would provide a faster and a safer evacuation program, has been observed. In this paper, the importance and feasibility of using Occupant Evacuation Elevators (OEEs) are reviewed. Also, a Smart Disaster Management System (SDMS) is proposed. The main purpose of this system is to simulate all the possible scenarios of emergency in the building and then, through the decision-making capability of the system, select the fastest and safest strategy of egress. To this end, an Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) unit is connected to an Artificial Intelligent (AI) unit to build a thinking engine for the proposed model. Overall, the paper shows how recent technologic advancements can be incorporated in order to form a smart disaster management system.
View BibText
@inproceedings{mirahadi2017smart,
title={Smart disaster management system for tall buildings},
author={Mirahadi, Farid and McCabe, Brenda and Shahi, Arash},
booktitle={Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (CSCE) Annual Conference},
year={2017}
}

Evaluation of computer vision-and 4D BIM-based construction progress tracking on a UAV platform
H Hamledari, B McCabe, S Davari, A Shahi, E Rezazadeh Azar, F Flager
Proc., 6TH CSCE/ASCE/CRC INTERNATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

View Abstract
The application of image-based progress tracking and object detection techniques has recently been extended to dynamic automated data collection and image capture platforms such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The use of UAVs has a great potential to eliminate tedious, labor-intensive, costly, and manual image capture processes. It can also provide a clearer and more informative view of construction work due to the UAVs’ high agility and maneuverability. However, it is also of utmost importance to analyze the effect of UAVs’ highly dynamic behavior on the accuracy of image-based solutions. UAV-captured images are subject to motion blur which not only can jeopardizes the object and progress recognition accuracy, but also the quality and reliability of resulting as-built 4D building information models (BIM). This study evaluates the performance of a 4D BIM-and computer vision-based construction progress detection method on images captured by an unmanned aerial vehicle. In this research, the components of indoor partitions such as studs, insulation, electrical outlets, and state of drywall work are automatically detected, and the 4D BIM is updated with schedule and progress information. In a series of experiments, the accuracy of this solution is analyzed with respect to the UAV’s velocity and photo capture configuration. This analysis can benefit UAV-based progress tracking systems and facilitate reliable UAV-based data collection at construction sites.
View BibText
@inproceedings{hamledari2017evaluation,
title={Evaluation of computer vision-and 4D BIM-based construction progress tracking on a UAV platform},
author={Hamledari, Hesam and McCabe, Brenda and Davari, Shakiba and Shahi, Arash and Rezazadeh Azar, Ehsan and Flager, Forest},
booktitle={Proc., 6TH CSCE/ASCE/CRC INTERNATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SPECIALTY CONFERENCE},
year={2017}
}

Window Wall and Curtain Wall: An Objective Review
P Marquis, F Mirahadi, H Ali, B McCabe, A Shahi, P De Berardis, R Lyall
SCE/CRC International Construction Specialty Conference. Vancouver, British Columbia, May

View Abstract
The enclosure designs for modern tall buildings in Canada often incorporate highly glazed cladding systems such as the window wall and the curtain wall. Simply put, the main difference between the systems is that the window wall structurally sits between the suspended reinforced concrete slabs while the curtain wall is hung off the slab edges by anchors. However, there are many more intricacies that differentiate the systems. The aesthetically slick and more expensive curtain wall is most often used in commercial buildings, while the highly customizable and constructible window wall is mostly used in residential construction. Further, curtain walls are designed to be self-supporting structures and must be installed from the outside via crane or rig while window walls are supported by the existing structure and can be installed from inside. In this paper, a comprehensive comparison of the two systems is presented. Thermal performance, water penetration, air leakage and moisture control are used as the metrics for each system’s overall performance. A comparison is also made for the two systems’ constructability, cost, and maintainability. Recommendations are outlined for the best use of each system, and improvements to their standard builds are defined. Overall, the window wall and curtain wall are very similar systems that can both be improved significantly from their typical designs. Both systems have their strengths, and can prove to be useful alternatives to each other with careful design.
View BibText
@inproceedings{marquis2017window,
title={Window Wall and Curtain Wall: An Objective Review},
author={Marquis, Patrick and Mirahadi, Farid and Ali, Hiba and McCabe, Brenda and Shahi, Arash and De Berardis, Paul and Lyall, Richard},
year={2017},
organization={SCE/CRC International Construction Specialty Conference. Vancouver, British~…}
}

Roles, benefits, and challenges of using UAVs for indoor smart construction applications
BY McCabe, H Hamledari, A Shahi, P Zangeneh, ER Azar
Computing in Civil Engineering 2017, 349-357

View Abstract
Although construction is often seen as an outdoor activity, much of the work is completed indoors. The indoor environment presents many challenges for the automatic capture of data during progress monitoring, quality control, quantity verification, and overall project documentation. This paper examines the potential of using robots, and more specifically, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and unmanned aerial systems (UAS), to monitor indoor construction sites. UAVs have become ubiquitous due to their commercialization as an off-the-shelf tool. However, their potential to facilitate the automation of many mundane and challenging activities in indoor construction is very high. Unfortunately, they also come with some important challenges. This paper explores the potential applications for UAV in indoor construction sites, their benefits, and their challenges. A sample of the benefits of this technology include their in-flight agility, capacity to hold an array of sensors, and automation potential. Challenges include potential safety risks if they distract or interfere with workers, navigation within ever changing surroundings, battery capacity limits, and impacts of automation. Finally, challenges of a multi-sensory smart UAS with respect to emerging technologies such as internet of things (IoT) and possible solutions are discussed.
View BibText
@incollection{mccabe2017roles,
title={Roles, benefits, and challenges of using UAVs for indoor smart construction applications},
author={McCabe, BY and Hamledari, Hesam and Shahi, Arash and Zangeneh, Pouya and Azar, E Rezazadeh},
booktitle={Computing in Civil Engineering 2017},
pages={349–357},
year={2017}
}

Evaluation of Tall Building Construction Permitting Process in Toronto
Shahi, K. McCabe, B.Y., Shahi, A., De Berardis, P., Lyall, R.
CSCE/CRC International Construction Specialty Conference. Vancouver, British Columbia, May 31 to June 3, 2017

View Abstract
The City of Toronto is one of the fastest growing municipalities in North America, attracting many developers to invest in its physical growth. As the major employment centre and surrounded by the contiguous cities that comprise the Greater Toronto Area, downtown Toronto has no option to grow except upwards in the form of mixed-use tall buildings. The rapid increase in construction of tall buildings all over the city raises concerns among city planners, architects, engineers and citizens about the way in which the city grows. To prevent undesirable or incompatible developments in the city, there have been numerous policies and regulations imposed. These, coupled with complex processing practices, have resulted in significant and increasing delays in the processing of new applications for the construction of tall buildings. These delays have slowed the supply of new units to the market and resulted in enormous opportunity costs for the City. In this research, detailed information for 174towers in the City of Toronto are collected and their permitting process evaluated. A number of challenges with the current system are identified and recommendations for improvement are provided. Finally, a Bayesian Network is developed to assess the probability of a new building proposal being rejected at the City Council and having to appeal to the Ontario Municipal Board for approval, based on a number of proposal characteristics.
View BibText
@article{kamelliaevaluation,
title={EVALUATION OF TALL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PERMITTING PROCESS IN TORONTO},
author={Kamellia, Shahi and McCabe, Brenda Y and De Berardis, Arash Shahi3 Paul and Lyall, Richard}
}

Impact of individual resilience and safety climate on safety performance and psychological stress of construction workers: A case study of the Ontario construction industry
Chen, Y., McCabe, B., and Hyatt, D.
Journal of Safety Research, 61, 167–176, 2017.

View Abstract
The construction industry has hit a plateau in terms of safety performance. Safety climate is regarded as a leading indicator of safety performance; however, relatively little safety climate research has been done in the Canadian construction industry. Safety climate may be geographically sensitive, thus it is necessary to examine how the construct of safety climate is defined and used to improve safety performance in different regions. On the other hand, more and more attention has been paid to job related stress in the construction industry. Previous research proposed that individual resilience may be associated with a better safety performance and may help employees manage stress. Unfortunately, few empirical research studies have examined this hypothesis. This paper aims to examine the role of safety climate and individual resilience in safety performance and job stress in the Canadian construction industry.
View BibText
@article{chen2017impact,
title={Impact of individual resilience and safety climate on safety performance and psychological stress of construction workers: A case study of the Ontario construction industry},
author={Chen, Yuting and McCabe, Brenda and Hyatt, Douglas},
journal={Journal of safety research},
volume={61},
pages={167–176},
year={2017},
publisher={Elsevier}
}

Relationship between individual resilience, interpersonal conflicts at work, and safety outcomes of construction workers
Y Chen, B McCabe, D Hyatt
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 143 (8), 04017042

View Abstract
Interpersonal conflicts at work (ICW) have been widely regarded as a job stressor; however, it is rarely linked to physical safety outcomes. The ICW primarily has two forms on a construction site: conflicts with supervisors (ICWS) and conflicts with coworkers (ICWC). This study examined the occurrences of ICWS and ICWC on construction sites, and investigated the relationship among ICWS, ICWS, and physical safety outcomes together with job stress. In addition, possible antecedents of ICWS and ICWC including workhours, mobility, and individual resilience were also examined. The research was based on 837 surveys collected from more than 100 construction sites in Ontario, Canada between July 2015 and July 2016. Structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques were used to test the hypothesized relationships. This paper leads to the following conclusions. Although ICW was reported as quite often or very often by only 6.3% of respondents, it had a significant effect on both physical safety outcomes, including physical injuries and unsafe events, and job stress. Individual resilience (IR) had a significant negative correlation with both ICWS and ICWC, which in turn could decrease the frequency of physical safety outcomes and job stress. The contributions of this study are that safety professionals may consider adding coping skill training safety programs to improve the individual resilience of their workforce and reduce conflict-related safety outcomes.
View BibText
@article{chen2017relationship,
title={Relationship between individual resilience, interpersonal conflicts at work, and safety outcomes of construction workers},
author={Chen, Yuting and McCabe, Brenda and Hyatt, Douglas},
journal={Journal of Construction Engineering and Management},
volume={143},
number={8},
pages={04017042},
year={2017},
publisher={American Society of Civil Engineers}
}

Automated Schedule and Progress Updating of IFC-based 4D BIMs
H Hamledari, B McCabe, S Davari, A Shahi
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 31 (4), 04017012

View Abstract
Researchers have studied the detection of actual site conditions and the state of construction progress using various field data capture technologies. To fully exploit these solutions, a method was developed to automatically update industry foundation classes (IFC) based four-dimensional (4D) building information models (BIM) in terms of schedule and progress. To automatically incorporate progress data into 4D BIMs, the method modifies the schedule hierarchy; updates progress ratios for the building elements; color codes the building elements based on their actual and expected progress; and updates the task durations and finish dates. A real case application is provided to demonstrate the potential of the system. The method’s reliance on nonproprietary IFC data format, its high accuracy rates, and its real-time performance in real-life testing scenarios provide promise to the future of automated 4D BIM updating and its use during construction. Input data can come from any source, thereby leveraging the use of reality capture technologies for BIM-based progress tracking.
View BibText
@article{hamledari2017automated,
title={Automated schedule and progress updating of IFC-based 4D BIMs},
author={Hamledari, Hesam and McCabe, Brenda and Davari, Shakiba and Shahi, Arash},
journal={Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering},
volume={31},
number={4},
pages={04017012},
year={2017},
publisher={American Society of Civil Engineers}
}

Representation and Management of Project's Knowledge-a Linked Data Approach
P Zangeneh, B McCabe, A Pearson, N Mason
Proc., 6th CSCE/CRC International Construction Specialty Conference

View Abstract
Large engineering companies have an abundance of project data in the form of reports and tables. As well, they possess valuable expert knowledge. There is enormous potential to systematically utilise these resources to assist with assessment of risks and estimates. Advances in computer and data sciences have significantly changed our interaction with data. More devices get connected the internet each day.“Sematic Web” has raised as a solution to increase machine readability and interoperability of data using “Linked Data” format and graph data structures. This provides a great environment to capture knowledge using ontology engineering. Overall, these concepts make it possible to create powerful and efficient knowledge bases. This paper presents our path and the latest efforts to create a knowledge management and representation system for engineering projects, using ontology engineering, linked data and semantic web concepts.
View BibText
@inproceedings{zangeneh2017representation,
title={Representation and Management of Project’s Knowledge-a Linked Data Approach},
author={Zangeneh, Pouya and McCabe, Brenda and Pearson, A and Mason, Nick},
booktitle={Proc., 6th CSCE/CRC International Construction Specialty Conference},
year={2017}
}

2016
Safety and Age: A Longitudinal Study of Ontario Construction Workers
Y Chen, B McCabe, D Hyatt
Construction Research Congress 2016, 2957-2966

View Abstract
Although safety performance measurement over time are vital for safety management, few longitudinal studies of construction safety have been conducted. While youth (age 18-24) are most often the focus of safety initiatives, safety management of older workers (age 55 plus) is also important because of the large percentage of older workforce. This paper examines the change in safety incidents on Ontario construction sites based on survey data from 2004 and 2014. Safety incident frequencies of three age groups (18-24, 25-54, 55 plus) are compared. The results show a downward trend for nearly all incident types. However, sprains or strains and fractures (high cost injuries) remain unchanged. Correspondingly, slips, trips and falls, which are the indicator events, are up. In addition, the results show that youth have the greatest decrease in frequency of almost all incident types and older workers made the greatest improvement percentage-wise in physical injuries and safety events. However, youth should still be the focus of safety initiatives because they experience the most incidents in 14 out of 26 injury and event types. Safety training strategies may need to be adapted to the older workforce given the important role of older workers in building a safer workplace.
View BibText
@inproceedings{chen2016safety,
title={Safety and Age: A Longitudinal Study of Ontario Construction Workers},
author={Chen, Yuting and McCabe, Brenda and Hyatt, Douglas},
booktitle={Construction Research Congress 2016},
pages={2957–2966},
year={2016}
}

Automated visual recognition of indoor project-related objects: Challenges and solutions
H Hamledari, B McCabe
Construction Research Congress 2016, 2573-2582

View Abstract
Previous research proved that applications of computer vision-based methods for automated recognition and tracking of project related entities at construction sites are very promising. Nevertheless, the applications of these methods for indoor construction sites have not been explored sufficiently. Automated visual recognition of indoor project-related objects can provide both essential information about the current state of progress and provide semantic information for model-based approaches. There are a large number of challenges associated with indoor visual recognition, such as illumination and changes in viewpoint that significantly reduce the accuracy of existing methods. In this paper, a novel procedure is introduced that takes an integrated color and shape-based approach toward recognition of project-related objects including structural elements and interior walls under moderate to extreme illumination conditions and from different viewpoints. The procedure is validated using a comprehensive library of indoor digital images under different illumination conditions and viewpoints. The results indicate the applicability of the proposed method for visual recognition of indoor project-related objects for further use in automated progress monitoring and providing as-built 3D models with supplementary semantic information.
View BibText
@inproceedings{hamledari2016automated,
title={Automated visual recognition of indoor project-related objects: Challenges and solutions},
author={Hamledari, Hesam and McCabe, Brenda},
booktitle={Construction Research Congress 2016},
pages={2573–2582},
year={2016}
}

2015

Data collection framework for construction safety research
Yuting Chen, Emilie Alderman, Brenda Y McCabe, Douglas Hyatt
Canadian Society of Civil Engineering.

View Abstract
Engaging workers from construction companies of various sizes and ensuring their participation in construction safety research is often very difficult. Voluntary participation is typically limited by industry-specific recruitment challenges such as the transient nature of the workforce, industry perception of safety research, schedule limitations, and economic constraints. This paper uses the lessons learned and best practices from several years of data collection experience to present a data collection framework for research within the construction industry. The framework includes organizational support, research instruments, data collection processes, and measures of data collection efficiency. The framework was developed following an intensive six-month data collection period, resulting in 370 completed surveys. A 95% survey completion rate following survey site visits was observed, however the overall recruitment time per survey was 3.8 hours. It is clear that data collection itself is often one of the most challenging and time consuming activities related to construction safety research. Clear communication protocols, strict confidentiality measures, and effective incentive strategies are discussed. Methods of engagement are also provided; often a hybrid of a top-down and bottom-up approach is required ensuring participation and worker/company buy-in. The data collection framework in this paper provides a point of departure for researchers to improve their data collection processes and in turn, work toward improving safety performance more efficiently in the construction industry.
View BibText
@article{chen2015data,
title={Data collection framework for construction safety research},
author={Chen, Yuting and Alderman, Emilie and McCabe, Brenda Y and Hyatt, Douglas},
year={2015},
publisher={Canadian Society of Civil Engineering}
}

CREATING A MEMORABLE LECTURE
A Shahi, M Safa, B McCabe, M Safa, S Hwang, SW McCrary
SOUTHWESTERN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION TEACHING CONRERENCE

View Abstract
All instructors hope that students will learn and remember what they teach in the classroom years after the lectures are over, an optimism challenged by staggering statistics showing that students only retain 10-20% of their lecture material even three weeks after the lectures. Despite many discouraging and demotivating statistics with respect to lecture material retention rates by students, we all have experienced at least one instructor whose inspiring lectures have had a long lasting and transformative effect on us. In this paper, the authors aim to inspire recognition in our role, as educators, to design effective lectures which promote optimal memory recall and learning. A number of specific strategies to promote long-term retention of knowledge are presented, including rehearsal and graphic representation of material, including the graphic syllabus.
View BibText
@article{shahi2015creating,
title={CREATING A MEMORABLE LECTURE},
author={Shahi, Arash and Safa, Mahdi and McCabe, Brenda and Safa, Majeed and Hwang, Seokyon and McCrary, Steven W},
journal={SOUTHWESTERN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION TEACHING CONRERENCE},
year={2015}
}